Spring Steel Alloys

Most springs are made with these types of metals:

High Carbon Spring Steel – Most common for springs – low cost, easily worked, wide availability. Not recommended for high or low temperature applications or for shock or impact loading.

Alloy Spring Steel – Used for high stress and shock or impact loadings. Can withstand a wider temperature range than high carbon spring steel.

Stainless Spring Steel – Some alloys allow temperatures up to 288°C. Corrosion resistant but only 18-8 is recommended for sub-zero temperatures.

Copper Base Spring Alloys – More expensive than steels but often used in electrical components due to good conductivity and corrosion resistance. Suitable for sub-zero temperatures.

Nickel Base Spring Alloys – Corrosion resistant and can withstand a wide temperature range. Non-magnetic but relatively high electrical resistance.

Some popular alloys:
  • Music Wire – ASTM A228
  • Oil-Tempered MB Grade – ASTM A229
  • Oil-Tempered HB Grade – SAE 1080
  • Hard-Drawn MB Grade – ASTM A227
  • Cold-Rolled Spring Steel, Blue-Tempered or Annealed – SAE 1074, 1064, 1070
  • Cold-Rolled Spring Steel, Blue-Tempered Clock Steel – SAE 1095
  • Chromium Vanadium – ASTM A231
  • Chromium Silicon – ASTM A401