High Carbon Spring Steel – Most common for springs – low cost, easily worked, wide availability. Not recommended for high or low temperature applications or for shock or impact loading.
Alloy Spring Steel – Used for high stress and shock or impact loadings. Can withstand a wider temperature range than high carbon spring steel.
Stainless Spring Steel – Some alloys allow temperatures up to 288°C. Corrosion resistant but only 18-8 is recommended for sub-zero temperatures.
Copper Base Spring Alloys – More expensive than steels but often used in electrical components due to good conductivity and corrosion resistance. Suitable for sub-zero temperatures.
Nickel Base Spring Alloys – Corrosion resistant and can withstand a wide temperature range. Non-magnetic but relatively high electrical resistance.
Some popular alloys:
- Music Wire – ASTM A228
- Oil-Tempered MB Grade – ASTM A229
- Oil-Tempered HB Grade – SAE 1080
- Hard-Drawn MB Grade – ASTM A227
- Cold-Rolled Spring Steel, Blue-Tempered or Annealed – SAE 1074, 1064, 1070
- Cold-Rolled Spring Steel, Blue-Tempered Clock Steel – SAE 1095
- Chromium Vanadium – ASTM A231
- Chromium Silicon – ASTM A401